Nearly half of all Americans have a dim view of the quality of U.S. higher education, and most think it’s not only too expensive but also only a fair or poor return on their investment, according to the results of a new survey.

Most of those surveyed—particularly college-aged Americans themselves—agree that U.S. higher education must change to remain globally competitive, though not everyone is convinced that increasingly popular online courses are as effective as conventional ones.

“These findings are a wake-up call for those of us in higher education,” said Joseph Aoun, president of Northeastern University, which commissioned the study.